UTI

Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)

UTI is infection in any part of urinary tract that is ureters, bladder, urethra. It is one of the most common infections. Females are more prone to this infection as compared to males. Common cause of UTI include bacterial cystitis or urethritis. Commonly involved bacteria are Escherichia coli, staphylococcus epidermidis, Klebsiella, proteus, and pseudomonas aeruginosa. Depending on the etiological factors, it could be mild to moderate and severe especially in older and immunocompromised patients. It is one of the most common causes of sepsis if left untreated. Therefore, it must not be neglected and if you feel the symptoms just go for the investigations. Common methods to diagnose UTI are history taking, clinical examination, blood culture, urinalysis and radiological screening.

Treatment of choice in case of Urinary tract infection is antibiotics. Basically, before prescribing any antibiotic to the patient, blood and urine culture should be performed to detect the growth of bacteria. Choice of antibiotic depends on the health condition and type of bacteria involved. Commonly used antibiotics for UTI are:

  • Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole
  • Fosfomycin
  • Cephalexin
  • Ceftriaxone
  • Nitrofurantoin
  • Fluoroquinolones such as ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin etc. in some severe cases

In mild to moderate cases antibiotics are ideally administered via oral route but in case of severe cases, intravenous route is preferred. Apart from antibiotics, analgesics such as paracetamol may also be prescribed in case of intractable pain. If someone has recurrent urinary tract infections, he or she must continue with low dose antibiotics for a period of six months.

Conservative Management

Plenty of fluids and bed rest is needed for rapid recovery. Maintenance of good personal hygiene is mandatory. Cranberry juice is considered to have antibacterial properties and helps prevent urinary tract infection. Trigger factors that could irritate bladder such as coffee, alcohol and fizzy drinks should be avoided or at least limited.

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